The Reality of Mass

HYPOTHESIS

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Physical Reality

THE REALITY OF MASS

 

 

 

 

Since the intensity of gravitational fields as a form of energy is a function of mass, by investigating the behaviour of large-scale structures in the Universe, we may be able to determine the nature of mass. After all, energy which drive the behaviour of matter is related to mass through the equation [E = mc2].

The only observed global behaviour, which represents some form of interaction between large-scale structures and relates to a global energy, is the apparent recession of those structures away from each other signifying the expansion of the Universe. If we assume the expansion is the result of an expanding medium, then pondering further leads us to the idea that the expansion is either driven by interaction between constituents of the medium or it is due to external negative pressure, which is being applied to the visible Universe causing it to inflate, or both. However, since we are still struggling to understand the Universe from within, it would be unwise to speculate about forces external to it. Therefore, we shall discard the idea of an externally driven expansion, at least at this stage and conclude that the constituents of the fabric of space must either be inflating individually or that voids are forming within the medium as a result of element interactions.

The idea of inflating particles driving the expansion of the Universe means that under any given set of conditions only one type of particle could develop, so that if local conditions change, all particles would change to be of the same type. This is clearly not in agreement with the reality of subatomic particles. Therefore, the idea may be discarded. The latter scenario, namely, that of the elements forming voids is more credible, not least because voids in a continuum are effectively discontinuities, which must therefore represent physical singularities in the otherwise continuum of massless elements. Therefore, mass is likely to be voids in a massless medium, which develop because of some form of interaction between elements of the fabric of space. Voids enable motion of the elements of space, which we have already defined as energy and hence the link between mass and energy.

If boundary conditions were such that they would allow expansion of the medium, then by continually forming voids between existing structures, space would appear to expand. In fact, any structures within such a space would be displaced away from each other as voids develop between them, while the density of any given structure remains the constant, as the volume of space occupied by the voids is cancelled out by the expansion – Fig 5.2A & 5.2B. On this basis, if we link the expansion of the Universe to the formation of matter and consequently mass and energy in the Universe, we could solve many outstanding problems in cosmology[i]. To start with, we can begin to view the Universe as a thermodynamic system and explain the reason behind its low entropy, which we can now relate directly to the properties of the constituents of the fabric of space.

The question we started with was how could structures form from the proposed elements of the fabric of space? Now, we have a second question to answer, which is how could voids develop in such a medium? Clearly, any correct solution to the apparent conundrum of matter formation must answer both of these questions, because they are interlinked. Thus, the solution calls for finding structures that develop and voids in the fabric of space.

 

For voids to form in the midst of a universe jam-packed with massless elements and for such voids to remain stable as the mass of stable particles, the elements must maintain some form of perpetual dynamics. The kinetics involved in forming and maintaining voids in the proposed medium depend on the properties of the particles, e.g. elasticity, as well as on the boundary conditions of the medium. If both of these criteria allow the formation of voids, then voids could form and remain in existence in one of two ways. One way is that the elements are deformable, so that a deformed particle that develops and maintains spin speed could maintain a void around itself. Another way that a void could develop is through the development of vortices or eddies. Of course, other types of voids, such as those induced by vibration, could form if the particles sustain relative displacement, but in a constant density medium, such voids are temporal – they would open and close immediately. The question becomes, what could cause deformation and instigate spin in elements of space? Alternatively, what could cause vortices to develop?

If elements that collide with each other eccentrically could sustain deformation and develop spin, then we would be half way through the solution. However, this does not explain the constancy of the mass of different subatomic particles. It is more likely that deformation is not the result of collision, but is a consequence of spin. In other words, there could be a relationship between a particle’s spin speed and its level of deformation. If there is a favourable spin speed that when a particle reaches it maintains, then it is likely that the deformation is the result of spin.

We can now begin to piece together the jigsaw puzzle. When a massless particle acquires spin, it sustains geometric deformation proportional to its spin speed. A deformed particle in spin motion forms a void around itself, just like chopper blades or a propeller running under water at extreme high speed. In effect, the particle transforms into a string[ii] or a membrane. Naturally, the size of the void that such a string can generate depends upon the string geometry and speed. Thus, like bubbles in fluids, the voids generated in the massless medium are subject to negative pressure from within, which is the result of the constant density maintained by the boundary conditions of the medium. The tendency of the particles to close the void causes it to attract more elements of space towards itself. Thus, structures form from elements of the proposed medium, which contain voids that we perceive as their mass.

The question now is what enables a deformed particle to maintain spin and consequently a void (mass)? In other words, what make such particles stable? The answer lies in maintaining balance in the trilogy of structural configuration, external pressure in the surroundings and negative pressure in the mass. In an attempt to close the void, elements surround the deformed particles form a ring around the mass. Thus, the string stays in perpetual spin. Whilst this scenario explains the development of one type of a stable subatomic particle, it does not explain how other types of particles might develop.

We mentioned above that the alternative to spin and deformation to form a void in the proposed medium is via the development of vortices. Clearly, in the absence of any form of dynamic structure in such a medium, there is no way that any vortices could form. However, now that we have reached a plausible scenario as to the development of some kind of dynamic structure, it is possible that other types of structures, including vortices, could develop as a spin off.

Based upon our consideration of physical reality thus far, we shall introduce a hypothesis statement, which defines the fabric of space and outlines the initial development of the basic building block of molecular matter, namely, the proton.


 

[i] Matter formation is not farfetched idea, for they are readily formed in experiments involving high-energy particle collision. On a much larger scale, out there in the Universe, there is no sound reason to discount the theory that interstellar clouds, which are in the form of ionised hydrogen, i.e., in the form of protons, develop from the elements of the fabric of space and that subsequently those protons acquire electrons to become Hydrogen.

[ii] The concept of transformation of massless particles to strings is related to the string theory, which is discussed in §5.9.

 

 

 

 

 

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Published May 2010

   

last updated  

12 Nov 2014